Inflammation: A Review

Inflammation is an integral part of atherothrombosis and the complex interplay between the inflammatory mediators and its substrates is an intriguing aspect of vascular pathophysiology. Several mediators have been discovered and their mechanisms have been elucidated. Certain mediators play the role of inflammatory markers as well. These have been useful for us to ascertain the presence and the prognosis of coronary artery disease. Recent large scale trials have been looking at means of altering the inflammatory pathway but the results are not spectacular and further studies are expected. A comprehensive review of markers and mediators is needed to help us understand where and when we should be concerned about these novel investigations and if the new drugs will ever be part of the arsenal of anti-atherosclerotic drugs. The September 2014 review in the Journal of Invasive Cardiology is an attempt at simplifying the numerous markers and mediators that have been investigated in the past and providing the reader with a fundamental knowledge of each.

Mukesh Gopalakrishnan, MD
Lloyd Klein, MD

Read the entire review at:

Gopalakrishnan M, Silva-Palacios F, Taytawat P, Pant R, Klein L. Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Plaque Rupture. J Invasive Cardiol. 2014 Sep;26(9):484-92.

Further reading on the topic of inflammatory response:

Stähli BE, Grünenfelder J, Jacobs S,  et al. Assessment of inflammatory response to transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation compared to transapical and surgical procedures: a pilot study. J Invasive Cardiol. 2012 Aug;24(8):407-11.

Kovarnik T, Kral A, Skalicka H, et al. The prediction of coronary artery disease based on non-invasive examinations and heme oxygenase 1 polymorphism versus virtual histology. J Invasive Cardiol. 2013 Jan;25(1):32-7.

Hedström E, Aström-Olsson K, Ohlin AK, Ohlin H, Arheden H. Initial results of inflammatory response, matrix remodeling, and reactive oxygen species following PCI in acute ischemic myocardial injury in man. J Invasive Cardiol. 2011 Sep;23(9):371-6.

Krumsdorf U1, Chorianopoulos E, Pleger ST, et al. C-reactive protein kinetics and its prognostic value after transfemoral aortic valve implantation. J Invasive Cardiol. 2012 Jun;24(6):282-6.

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